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Change the answer mode for this tool by selecting mass of object 1 (m_{1}), mass of object 2 (m_{2}), distance between centre of mass of each object (r) or gravitational force acting on both objects (F) as the parameter to calculate instead

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## User Guide

This tool will calculate any parameter from the formula for Newton’s universal gravitational force F=Gm₁m₂/r², which includes the mass of each object, the distance between each object’s centre of mass, and the gravitation force on both objects.

Newton’s universal gravitation law explains that the attracting force between two objects is directly proportional to multiplying each object’s mass together, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centre of mass of each object.

### Formulas

The formulas used by this Newton’s universal gravitational force calculator to determine each individual parameter are:

m_{1} = F · r^{2} / (G · m_{2})

m_{2} = F · r^{2} / (G · m_{1})

r = (G · m_{1} · m_{2} / F)^{1/2}

F = G · m_{1} · m_{2} / r^{2}

#### Symbols

- m
_{1}= Mass of object 1 - m
_{2}= Mass of object 2 - r = Distance between objects centre of mass
- F = Gravitational force
- G = Gravitational constant

### Mass (m_{1})

This is the total mass of object 1.

### Mass (m_{2})

This is the total mass of object 2.

### Distance (r)

This is the distance between each object’s centre of mass.

### Force (F)

This is the gravitation force attracting both objects together.